Phytothérapie

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Définition

Phytothérapie : Usage des plantes médicinales à des fins thérapeutiques (étymologie grecque « phyton », plante et « therapein », soigner)

  • La phytothérapie moderne impose :
    • De nommer la plante sous son nom botanique international (dénomination latine binominale)
      • Nom de genre et d'espèce
    • De préciser l'organe de plante utilisé (correspondant à la drogue végétale et à son usage médicinal)
    • D'indiquer la forme galénique adéquate
      • La forme galénique est la forme sous laquelle se présente un médicament (liquide, solide ou pulvérulente), ainsi que sa présentation (gélule, comprimé, sirop…). Cette dénomination provient du nom du médecin grec Galien, qui en a codifié les règles
    • De spécifier le dosage et la durée de traitement [1]

Législation

Règlementation au niveau mondial

Phytothérapie et médecine basée sur les preuves (evidence based medicine)

Remarque : les études citées ne représentent qu'une petite partie de la bibliographie disponible

  • Francesco Chiappelli, Paolo Prolo, Olivia S. Cajulis. Evidence-based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine I: History. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 December; 2(4): 453–458. PMCID: PMC1297495 texte intégral
  • Francesco Chiappelli, Paolo Prolo, Monica Rosenblum, Myeshia Edgerton, Olivia S. Cajulis. Evidence-Based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine II: The Process of Evidence-Based Research. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 March; 3(1): 3–12. PMCID: PMC1375240 texte intégral
  • Francesco Chiappelli, Audrey M. Navarro, David R. Moradi, Ercolano Manfrini, Paolo Prolo. Evidence-Based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine III: Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 December; 3(4): 411–424. PMCID: PMC1697743 texte intégral
  • Fabio Firenzuoli, Luigi Gori. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 September; 4(Suppl 1): 37–40. PMID 18227931
  • C Mar and S Bent. An evidence-based review of the 10 most commonly used herbs. West J Med. 1999 September; 171(3): 168–171. PMCID: PMC1305802 texte intégral
  • Sharma A, Cardoso-Taketa A, García G, Villarreal ML. A systematic updated review of scientifically tested selected plants used for anxiety disorders. Botanics: Targets and Therapy, September 2012, Volume 2, Pages 21 – 39 [1]
  • Pal SK, Shukla Y. Herbal medicine: current status and the future. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2003 Aug-Dec;4(4):281-8. PMID 14728584

Études concernant l'efficacité de la phytothérapie dans les troubles psychiatriques

  • Sarris J, Panossian A, Schweitzer I, Stough C, Scholey A. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Dec;21(12):841-60. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.04.002. PMID 21601431
  • Sarris J. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review. Phytother Res. 2007 Aug;21(8):703-16. PMID 17562566
  • Walter G, Rey JM. The relevance of herbal treatments for psychiatric practice. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1999 Aug;33(4):482-9; discussion 490-3. PMID 10483842
  • Shahin Akhondzadeh, Javad Maleki. Herbal Medicines In The Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders. Iran J Psychiatry 2006; 1: 1-11 [2]
  • Sarris J, McIntyre E, Camfield DA. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence. CNS Drugs. 2013 Apr;27(4):301-19. doi: 10.1007/s40263-013-0059-9. PMID 23653088
  • Rachael Evans, Shannon Moss, Cathy C. Montoya. Which nutritional therapies are safe and effective for depression? J Fam Pract. 2011 February;60(02):99-100c. texte intégral
  • Liu L, Liu C, Wang Y, Wang P, Li Y, Li B. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia. Current Neuropharmacology. 2015;13(4):481-493. doi:10.2174/1570159X1304150831122734. texte intégral
  • Lee G, Bae H. Therapeutic Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicinal Herbs on Depression. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6596241. PMID 28503571
  • Martins J, S B. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of anti-depressant medicinal plants: A review. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Aug;104:343-365. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.044. PMID 29778018

Phytothérapie et immunité

  • Takeda K, Okumura K. CAM and NK Cells. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2004;1(1):17-27. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh014. texte intégral
  • Amirghofran Z, Bahmani M, Azadmehr A, Javidnia K, Miri R. Immunomodulatory activities of various medicinal plant extracts: effects on human lymphocytes apoptosis. Immunol Invest. 2009;38(2):181-92. doi: 10.1080/08820130902817051. PMID 19330626
  • Choi EM, Kim AJ, Kim YO, Hwang JK. Immunomodulating activity of arabinogalactan and fucoidan in vitro. J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):446-53. PMID 16379554
  • Luettig B, Steinmüller C, Gifford GE, Wagner H, Lohmann-Matthes ML. Macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989 May 3;81(9):669-75. PMID 2785214
  • Classen B, Thude S, Blaschek W, Wack M, Bodinet C. Immunomodulatory effects of arabinogalactan-proteins from Baptisia and Echinacea. Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):688-94. PMID 17085292
  • Zhou L, Liu Z, Wang Z, et al. Astragalus polysaccharides exerts immunomodulatory effects via TLR4-mediated MyD88-dependent signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:44822. doi:10.1038/srep44822. PMID 28303957
  • Pungle P, Banavalikar M, Suthar A, Biyani M, Mengi S. Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Dec;41(12):1460-2. PMID 15320503
  • O. Kayser, H. Kolodziej, A. F. Kiderlen. Immunomodulatory principles of Pelargonium sidoides. Phytotherapy Research, Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 122–126, March 2001

Phytothérapie et restauration de l'activité des antibiotiques face aux germes résistants

  • Hatano T, Kusuda M, Inada K, Ogawa TO, Shiota S, Tsuchiya T, Yoshida T. Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemistry. 2005 Sep;66(17):2047-55. PMID 16153408
  • Hatano T, Kusuda M, Hori M, Shiota S, Tsuchiya T, Yoshida T. Theasinensin A, a tea polyphenol formed from (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, suppresses antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Planta Med. 2003 Nov;69(11):984-9. PMID 14735433
  • Shiota S, Shimizu M, Sugiyama J, Morita Y, Mizushima T, Tsuchiya T. Mechanisms of action of corilagin and tellimagrandin I that remarkably potentiate the activity of beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48(1):67-73. PMID 14734860
  • Shiota S, Shimizu M, Mizusima T, Ito H, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Tsuchiya T. Restoration of effectiveness of beta-lactams on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by tellimagrandin I from rose red. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000 Apr 15;185(2):135-8.
  • Fujita M, Shiota S, Kuroda T, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Mizushima T, Tsuchiya T. Remarkable synergies between baicalein and tetracycline, and baicalein and beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49(4):391-6. PMID 15840965
  • Chan BC, Ip M, Lau CB, Lui SL, Jolivalt C, Ganem-Elbaz C, Litaudon M, Reiner NE, Gong H, See RH, Fung KP, Leung PC. Synergistic effects of baicalein with ciprofloxacin against NorA over-expressed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and inhibition of MRSA pyruvate kinase. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):767-73.

Phytothérapie et pédiatrie

  • Les enfants et les produits de santé naturels: Ce que le clinicien devrait savoir. Paediatr Child Health. 2005 avril; 10(4): 236–241. PMCID: PMC2722535 texte intégral

Phytothérapie et inflammation

  • Beg S, Swain S, Hasan H, Barkat MA, Hussain MS. Systematic review of herbals as potential anti-inflammatory agents: Recent advances, current clinical status and future perspectives. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2011;5(10):120-137. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.91102. texte intégral

Phytothérapie et gestion de la douleur

  • Almeida RN, Navarro DS, Barbosa-Filho JM. Plants with central analgesic activity. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jul;8(4):310-22. PMID 11515723
  • Zareba G. Phytotherapy for pain relief. Drugs Today (Barc). 2009 Jun;45(6):445-67. doi: 10.1358/dot.2009.45.6.1354120. PMID 19649334
  • Calixto JB, Beirith A, Ferreira J, Santos AR, Filho VC, Yunes RA. Naturally occurring antinociceptive substances from plants. Phytother Res. 2000 Sep;14(6):401-18. PMID 10960893
  • McCurdy CR, Scully SS. Analgesic substances derived from natural products (natureceuticals). Life Sci. 2005 Dec 22;78(5):476-84. PMID 16216276

Phytothérapie et hypertension artérielle

  • Hansen K, Nyman U, Smitt UW, Adsersen A, Gudiksen L, Rajasekharan S, Pushpangadan P. In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-hypertensive effect based on inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Aug 11;48(1):43-51. PMID 8569246

Phytothérapie et hormones

  • Gunter G.C. Kuhnle, Caterina Dell’Aquila, Sue M. Aspinall, Shirley A. Runswick, Annemiek M.C.P. Joosen, Angela A. Mulligan, Sheila A. Bingham. Phytoestrogen content of fruits and vegetables commonly consumed in the UK based on LC–MS and 13C-labelled standards. Food Chemistry, Volume 116, Issue 2, 15 September 2009, Pages 542–554
  • Heidi Schwartz , Gerhard Sontag, Jenny Plumb. Inventory of phytoestrogen databases. Food Chemistry, Volume 113, Issue 3, 1 April 2009, Pages 736–747
  • Carmichael SL, Gonzalez-Feliciano AG, Ma C, Shaw GM, Cogswell ME. Estimated dietary phytoestrogen intake and major food sources among women during the year before pregnancy. Nutr J. 2011 Oct 6;10:105. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-105. PMID 21978267

Phytothérapie et activité antivirale

  • Arora R, Chawla R, Marwah R, et al. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM. 2011;2011:586506. doi:10.1155/2011/586506. texte intégral

Phytothérapie et cancer

  • Ravelo AG, Estévez-Braun A, Chávez-Orellana H, Pérez-Sacau E, Mesa-Siverio D. Recent studies on natural products as anticancer agents. Curr Top Med Chem. 2004;4(2):241-65. PMID 14754457
  • Kaur V, Kumar M, Kumar A, Kaur K, Dhillon VS, Kaur S. Pharmacotherapeutic potential of phytochemicals: Implications in cancer chemoprevention and future perspectives. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jan;97:564-586. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.124. PMID 29101800

Ethnopharmacologie

  • Vandebroek I. Intercultural health and ethnobotany: how to improve healthcare for underserved and minority communities? J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 30;148(3):746-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.039. PMID 23727048
  • Paula De Vos. European Materia Medica in Historical Texts: Longevity of a Tradition and Implications for Future Use. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 October 28; 132(1): 28–47. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.035. texte intégral
  • Fleurentin Jacques. Ethics, regulations and development: new perspectives in ethnopharmacology for the next decade, V Coloquio Europeo de Etnofarmacología. Revista de Fitoterapia 2005; 5 (S1) 13 texte intégral
  • Fleurentin J. et Dos Santos J. (1991) L'ethnopharmacologie : une approche pluridisciplinaire in Fleurentin J. et coll. (eds) Ethnopharmacologie. Sources, méthodes, objectifs. Paris - Metz, Orstom Eds - Société Française d'Ethnopharmacologie, 493 p.
  • http://www.ethnopharmacologia.org

Synergies

  • Williamson EM. Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines. Phytomedicine. 2001 Sep;8(5):401-9. PMID 11695885
  • Spinella M. The importance of pharmacological synergy in psychoactive herbal medicines. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Apr;7(2):130-7. PMID 11991792

Supériorité du totum végétal

Les phytocomplexes possèdent des effets plus importants que les composés isolés en raison d’actions multiples entrainant une activité totale plus importante, s’expliquant par les synergies, une meilleure biodisponibilité, les effets additifs ou cumulatifs des composants, et des interactions exogènes (avec des substances absentes de l'extrait) ou endogènes (avec les substances présentes dans l'extrait)

  • Fabio Carmona, Ana Maria Soares Pereira. Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 23(2): 379-385, Mar./Apr. 2013 [3]
  • Cravotto G, Boffa L, Genzini L, Garella D. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010 Feb;35(1):11-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01096.x. PMID 20175810
  • Barbara Schmidt, David M. Ribnicky, Alexander Poulev, Sithes Logendra, William T. Cefalu, Ilya Raskin. A natural history of botanical therapeutics. Metabolism Volume 57, Supplement 1, July 2008, Pages S3-S9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2008.03.001
  • Rasoanaivo P, Wright CW, Willcox ML, Gilbert B. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions. Malar J. 2011 Mar 15;10 Suppl 1:S4. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-S1-S4.
  • Elfawal MA, Towler MJ, Reich NG, Weathers PJ, Rich SM. Dried whole-plant Artemisia annua slows evolution of malaria drug resistance and overcomes resistance to artemisinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 20;112(3):821-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1413127112. PMID 25561559

Approches "-omiques" en phytothérapie

  • Ulrich-Merzenich G, Zeitler H, Jobst D, Panek D, Vetter H, Wagner H. Application of the "-Omic-" technologies in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine. 2007 Jan;14(1):70-82. PMID 17188482</ref>

Interactions

  • Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review. Drugs. 2001;61(15):2163-75. PMID 11772128
  • Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. Drugs. 2009;69(13):1777-98. doi: 10.2165/11317010-000000000-00000. PMID 19719333
  • Izzo AA. Herb-drug interactions: an overview of the clinical evidence. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;19(1):1-16. PMID 15660956
  • Capasso R, Izzo AA, Pinto L, Bifulco T, Vitobello C, Mascolo N. Phytotherapy and quality of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug;71 Suppl 1:S58-65. PMID 10930714
  • Interactions et produits naturels, Collège des Médecins et Ordre des Pharmaciens du Québec [4]
  • Williamson Elizabeth, Driver Samuel, Baxter Karen. Stockley’s Herbal Medicines Interactions. A guide to the interactions of herbal medicines, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with conventional medicines. Pharmaceutical Press, 2009.
  • Hu Z, Yang X, Ho PC, Chan SY, Heng PW, Chan E, Duan W, Koh HL, Zhou S. Herb-drug interactions: a literature review. Drugs. 2005;65(9):1239-82. PMID 15916450
  • Skalli S, Zaid A, Soulaymani R. Drug interactions with herbal medicines. Ther Drug Monit. 2007 Dec;29(6):679-86. PMID 18043467
  • Haefeli WE, Carls A. Drug interactions with phytotherapeutics in oncology. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2014 Mar;10(3):359-77. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2014.873786. PMID 24387348
  • Petitet F. Interactions pharmacocinétiques entre préparations à base de plantes et médicaments : une revue des absences d’interactions démontrées cliniquement. Phytothérapie, october 2013, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 272-283 [5]
  • NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health [6]
  • Interactions plantes-médicaments : Base de données HEDRINE (Herb Drug Interaction Database) : https://hedrine.ujf-grenoble.fr
  • Navarette Sandra, Saussays Charline. Les interactions entre plantes et médicaments. Thèse de Sciences pharmaceutiques. Université Joseph Fourier Faculté de Pharmacie de Grenoble. 2011. <dumas-00641779> texte intégral
  • Fasinu PS, Bouic PJ, Rosenkranz B. An Overview of the Evidence and Mechanisms of Herb–Drug Interactions. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2012;3:69. doi:10.3389/fphar.2012.00069. texte intégral
  • Ulbricht C, Basch E, Weissner W, Hackman D. An evidence-based systematic review of herb and supplement interactions by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Sep;5(5):719-28. PMID 16907661
  • Breinholt VM, Offord EA, Brouwer C, Nielsen SE, Brøsen K, Friedberg T. In vitro investigation of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of dietary flavonoids. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 May;40(5):609-16. PMID 11955666
  • Chloé Hyeulle. Iatrogénie et dispensation des antagonistes de la vitamine K à l’officine. (Thèse Diplôme d'Etat de Docteur en Pharmacie) Sciences pharmaceutiques. 2010. <hal-01738836>
  • Tsai HH, Lin HW, Simon Pickard A, Tsai HY, Mahady GB. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1056-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2012.03008.x. PMID 23067030
  • Posadzki P, Watson L, Ernst E. Herb-drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;75(3):603-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04350.x. PMID 22670731 texte intégral
  • Milić N, Milosević N, Golocorbin Kon S, Bozić T, Abenavoli L, Borrelli F. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs. Nat Prod Commun. 2014 Aug;9(8):1211-6. PMID 25233607
  • Un guide pratique des plantes médicinales pour les personnes vivant avec le VIH. Réseau canadien d'info-traitements SIDA (CATIE), édition révisée 2005 texte intégral en pdf
  • GUILHAUME Jade. Le sportif : conseils et prise en charge par la phytothérapie a l’officine. Thèse pharmacie, Université d’Aix-Marseille, avril 2019 texte intégral
  • PERRY Marceau. Herboristerie : enquête sur les principales demandes à l’officine. Thèse Pharmacie, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, Juin 2013

Toxicité et pharmacovigilance

  • Carod-Artal FJ. Neurological syndromes linked with the intake of plants and fungi containing a toxic component (I). Neurotoxic syndromes caused by the ingestion of plants, seeds and fruits. Rev Neurol. 2003 May 1-15;36(9):860-71. PMID 12717675
  • Shaw D, Graeme L, Pierre D, Elizabeth W, Kelvin C. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Apr 10;140(3):513-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.051. PMID 22342381
  • Zhang L, Yan J, Liu X, Ye Z, Yang X, Meyboom R, Chan K, Shaw D, Duez P. Pharmacovigilance practice and risk control of Traditional Chinese Medicine drugs in China: current status and future perspective. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Apr 10;140(3):519-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.058. PMID 22374080
  • Barnes J. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines : a UK perspective. Drug Saf. 2003;26(12):829-51. PMID 12959628
  • Wal P, Wal A, Gupta S, Sharma G, Rai A. Pharmacovigilance of herbal products in India. J Young Pharm. 2011 Jul;3(3):256-8. doi: 10.4103/0975-1483.83780. PMID 21897669
  • Di Lorenzo C, Ceschi A, Kupferschmidt H, et al. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2015;79(4):578-592. doi:10.1111/bcp.12519. texte intégral
  • Stickel F, Egerer G, Seitz HK. Hepatotoxicity of botanicals. Public Health Nutr. 2000 Jun;3(2):113-24. PMID 10948380
  • Stickel F, Shouval D. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update. Arch Toxicol. 2015 Jun;89(6):851-65. doi: 10.1007/s00204-015-1471-3. PMID 25680499
  • Mantle D, Gok MA, Lennard TW. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 2001 Jun;20(2):89-103. PMID 11482001
  • Abdualmjid RJ, Sergi C. Hepatotoxic botanicals - an evidence-based systematic review. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(3):376-404. PMID 24021288
  • Yarnell, Eric & Abascal, Kathy. (2014). Hepatotoxicity of Botanicals. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 20. 136-144. 10.1089/act.2014.20302.
  • Juurlink BH. Therapeutic potential of dietary phase 2 enzyme inducers in ameliorating diseases that have an underlying inflammatory component. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;79(3):266-82. PMID 11294604

Autres références

  1. Morel Jean-Michel. Traité pratique de Phytothérapie. 618 pages. Préface de Jean-Marie Pelt. Ed. Grancher, 2008.
  • Iraj Rasooli. Bioactive compounds in phytomedicine. [7]